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Quantum scrambling via accessible tripartite information

Quantum Science and Technology 8, 035006 (2023)

Gabriele Lo Monaco, Luca Innocenti, Dario Cilluffo, D A Chisholm, Salvatore Lorenzo and G Massimo Palma

Quantum information scrambling (QIS), from the perspective of quantum information theory, is generally understood as local non-retrievability of information evolved through some dynamical process, and is often quantified via entropic quantities such as the tripartite information. We argue that this approach comes with a number of issues, in large part due to its reliance on quantum mutual informations, which do not faithfully quantify correlations directly retrievable via measurements, and in part due to the specific methodology used to compute tripartite informations of the studied dynamics. We show that these issues can be overcome by using accessible mutual informations, defining corresponding ‘accessible tripartite informations’, and provide explicit examples of dynamics whose scrambling properties are not properly quantified by the standard tripartite information. Our results lay the groundwork for a more profound understanding of what QIS represents, and reveal a number of promising, as of yet unexplored, venues for further research.

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The meaning of redundancy and consensus in quantum objectivity

Quantum 7, 1074 (2023)

D.A. Chisholm, L. Innocenti, G.M. Palma

While the terms “redundancy” and “consensus” are often used as synonyms in the context of quantum objectivity, we show here that these should be understood as two related but distinct notions, that quantify different features of the quantum-toclassical transition. We show that the two main frameworks used to measure quantum objectivity, namely spectrum broadcast structure and quantum Darwinism, are best suited to quantify redundancy and consensus, respectively. Furthermore, by analyzing explicit examples of states with nonlocally encoded information, we highlight the potentially stark difference between the degrees of redundancy and consensus. In particular, this causes a break in the hierarchical relations between spectrum broadcast structure and quantum Darwinism. Our framework provides a new perspective to interpret known and future results in the context of quantum objectivity, paving the way for a deeper understanding of the emergence of classicality from the quantum realm.

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Potential and limitations of quantum extreme learning machines

Communication Physics 6, 118 (2023)

L. Innocenti, S. Lorenzo, I. Palmisano, A. Ferraro, M. Paternostro, and G. M. Palma

Quantum extreme learning machines (QELMs) aim to efficiently post-process the outcome of fixed — generally uncalibrated — quantum devices to solve tasks such as the estimation of the properties of quantum states. The characterisation of their potential and limitations, which is currently lacking, will enable the full deployment of such approaches to problems of system identification, device performance optimization, and state or process reconstruction. We present a framework to model QELMs, showing that they can be concisely described via single effective measurements, and provide an explicit characterisation of the information exactly retrievable with such protocols. We furthermore find a close analogy between the training process of QELMs and that of reconstructing the effective measurement characterising the given device. Our analysis paves the way to a more thorough understanding of the capabilities and limitations of QELMs, and has the potential to become a powerful measurement paradigm for quantum state estimation that is more resilient to noise and imperfections.

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Diagnostics of quantum-gate coherences deteriorated by unitary errors via end-point-measurement statistics

Quantum Science and Technology 8, 045018 (2023)

Ilaria Gianani, Alessio Belenchia, Stefano Gherardini, Vincenzo Berardi, Marco Barbieri, and Mauro Paternostro

Quantum coherence is a central ingredient in quantum physics with several theoretical and technological ramifications. In this work we consider a figure of merit encoding the information on how the coherence generated on average by a quantum gate is affected by unitary errors (coherent noise sources). We provide numerical evidences that such information is well captured by the statistics of local energy measurements on the output states of the gate. These findings are then corroborated by experimental data taken in a quantum optics setting.

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Experimental signature of initial quantum coherence on entropy production

npj Quantum Information 9, 86 (2023)

S. Hernández-Gómez, S. Gherardini, A. Belenchia, A. Trombettoni, M. Paternostro and N. Fabbri

We report the experimental quantication of the contribution to non-equilibrium entropy production that stems from the quantum coherence content in the initial state of a qubit exposed to both coherent driving and dissipation. Our experimental demonstration builds on the exquisite experimental control of the spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond and is underpinned, theoretically, by the formulation of a generalized ‑uctuation theorem designed to track the eects of quantum coherence. Our results provide signicant evidence of the possibility to pinpoint the genuinely quantum mechanical contributions to the thermodynamics of non-equilibrium quantum processes.

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Linear-friction many-body equation for dissipative spontaneous wave-function collapse

Physical Review A 108, 012202 (2023)

Giovanni Di Bartolomeo, Matteo Carlesso, Kristian Piscicchia, Catalina Curceanu, Maaneli Derakhshani and Lajos Diósi

We construct and study the simplest universal dissipative Lindblad master equation for many-body systems with the purpose of a new dissipative extension of existing nonrelativistic theories of fundamental spontaneous decoherence and spontaneous wave function collapse in nature. It is universal as it is written in terms of second-quantized mass density ϱ and current J, thus making it independent of the material structure and its parameters. Assuming linear friction in the current, we find that the dissipative structure is strictly constrained. Following the general structure of our dissipative Lindblad equation, we derive and analyze the dissipative extensions of the two most known spontaneous wave function collapse models, the Diósi-Penrose and the continuous spontaneous localization models.

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Collapse Dynamics Are Diffuse

Physical Review Letters 130, 230202 (2023)

Sandro Donadi, Luca Ferialdi and Angelo Bassi

Noninterferometric experiments have been successfully employed to constrain models of spontaneous wave function collapse, which predict a violation of the quantum superposition principle for large systems. These experiments are grounded on the fact that, according to these models, the dynamics is driven by noise that, besides collapsing the wave function in space, generates a diffusive motion with characteristic signatures, which, though small, can be tested. The noninterferometric approach might seem applicable only to those models that implement the collapse through noisy dynamics, not to any model, that collapses the wave function in space. Here, we show that this is not the case: under reasonable assumptions, any collapse dynamics (in space) is diffusive. Specifically, we prove that any space-translation covariant dynamics that complies with the no-signaling constraint, if collapsing the wave function in space, must change the average momentum of the system and/or its spread.

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Motion of an electron through vacuum fluctuations

Physical Review A 107, 062801 (2023)

Anirudh Gundhi and Angelo Bassi

We study the effects of the electromagnetic vacuum on the motion of a nonrelativistic electron. First we derive the equation of motion for the expectation value of the electron’s position operator. We show how this equation has the same form as the classical Abraham-Lorentz equation but, at the same time, is free of the well-known runaway solution. Second, we study decoherence induced by vacuum fluctuations. We show that decoherence due to vacuum fluctuations that appears at the level of the reduced density matrix of the electron, obtained after tracing over the radiation field, does not correspond to actual irreversible loss of coherence.

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Collapse Models: A Theoretical, Experimental and Philosophical Review

Entropy 25, 645 (2023)

Angelo Bassi, Mauro Dorato and Hendrik Ulbricht

In this paper, we review and connect the three essential conditions needed by the collapse model to achieve a complete and exact formulation, namely the theoretical, the experimental, and the ontological ones. These features correspond to the three parts of the paper. In any empirical science, the first two features are obviously connected but, as is well known, among the different formulations and interpretations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, only collapse models, as the paper well illustrates with a richness of details, have experimental consequences. Finally, we show that a clarification of the ontological intimations of collapse models is needed for at least three reasons: (1) to respond to the indispensable task of answering the question ’what are collapse models (and in general any physical theory) about?’; (2) to achieve a deeper understanding of their different formulations; (3) to enlarge the panorama of possible readings of a theory, which historically has often played a fundamental heuristic role.

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Optomechanics-Based Quantum Estimation Theory for Collapse Models

Entropy 25, 500 (2023)

Marta Maria Marchese, Alessio Belenchia and Mauro Paternostro

We make use of the powerful formalism of quantum parameter estimation to assess the characteristic rates of a continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model affecting the motion of a massive mechanical system. We show that a study performed in non-equilibrium conditions unveils the advantages provided by the use of genuinely quantum resources—such as quantum correlations—in estimating the CSL-induced diffusion rate. In stationary conditions, instead, the gap between quantum performance and a classical scheme disappears. Our investigation contributes to the ongoing effort aimed at identifying suitable conditions for the experimental assessment of collapse models.

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Project manager
Irene Spagnul
Department of Physics
University of Trieste


Co-funded by the European Commission’s
Horizon Europe Programme under GA 101046973

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